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Research Studies Related to Snowmobiling Impacts

WILDLIFE


Deer, Elk, Moose and Reindeer Caribou

View this chapter in “Research Studies Related to Snowmobiling Impacts”. Studies for which full reports are available have links below (blue titles only).

Deer
  1. Ungulates effects of recreation on Rocky mountain wildlife: A review for Montana (1999)
  2. How off-highway vehicles affect deer (1992)
  3. Rock Creek off-road vehicle/deer study (1991)
  4. Rock Creek Off-Road Vehicle/Deer study – Interim Report (1990)
  5. Responses of black-tailed deer to off-highway vehicles in Hollister Hills State Vehicular Recreation Area Hollister, CA (1989)
  6. Responses of mule deer to disturbance by persons afoot and in snowmobiles (1986)
  7. Effects of disturbance by snowmobiles on heart rate of captive white-tailed deer (1982)
  8. Snowmobile impacts on the natural environment (1980)
  9. Snowmobile effects on movements of white-tailed deer: A case study (1979)
  10. Response of white-tailed deer to snowmobiles and snowmobile trails in Maine (1978)
  11. Winter response of deer to snowmobiles and selected natural factors (1976)
  12. Effects of snowmobiles on white-tailed deer (1975)
  13. Effect of snowmobile noise and deer and rabbits in their natural habitat (1974)
  14. Effects of snowmobiles on the movements of white-tailed deer in Northern Wisconsin (1973)
Elk
  1. Wildlife Responses to Motorized Winter Recreation in Yellowstone (2005)
  2. Bison and Elk Responses to Winter Recreation in Yellowstone National Park (2001)
  3. Effects of Winter Recreation on Elk (1999)
  4. Ungulates effects of recreation on Rocky mountain wildlife: A review for Montana (1999)
  5. Elk responses to disturbance by cross country skiers in Yellowstone National Park (1992)
  6. How off-highway vehicles affect elk (1992)
  7. Influence of Nordic skiing on distribution of moose and elk in Elk Island National Park, Alberta (1985)
  8. Snowmobile impacts on the natural environment (1980)
  9. Telemetered heart rate of three Elk as effected by activity and human disturbance (1980)
Moose
  1. Effects of winter recreation on northern ungulates with focus on moose and snowmobiles, (2013)
  2. Effects of Winter Recreation on Moose (1999)
  3. Reaction of Moose to Snowmobile Traffic in the Greys River Valley, Wyoming (1998)
  4. Influence of Nordic skiing on distribution of moose and elk in Elk Island National Park, Alberta (1985)
  5. Snowmobilers, Their Experience and Habitat Preferences, and the Implications for Wintering Moose (1984)
Reindeer
  1. Behavior Responses of Wild Reindeer to Direct Provocation by a Snowmobile or Skier (2003)